Wikipedysta:Leafnode/Główne silniki promu kosmicznego: Różnice pomiędzy wersjami

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|podpis_obrazka=Space Shuttle Main Engine test firing- the bright area at the bottom of the picture is a [[Mach disk]]
|nazwa=Silnik główny promu kosmicznego
|kraj=[[Stany Zjednoczone|United States]]
|producent=[[Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne]]
|użycie=[[Space Transportation System]]
 
 
'''Główne silniki promu kosmicznego''' ([[język angielski|ang.]] ''Space Shuttle Main Engines'' - '''SSME''') to trzy silniki wielokrotnego użytku [[Orbiter STS|orbitera]] [[wahadłowiec kosmiczny|promu kosmicznego]]. Każde wyniesienie zespołu wahadłowca jest wspomagane przez trzy z zasobu czternastu silników stosowanych przez [[NASA|NASA]] w [[Space Transportation System|systemie transportu kosmicznego]]<ref>{{Cytuj stronę |url=http://www.nasa.gov/pdf/361842main_15%20-%20Augustine%20Sidemount%20Final.pdf |title=Shuttle-Derived Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle |author=John Shannon |date=June 17, 2009}}</ref>. Po każdym locie silniki były demontowane z orbitera, poddawane inspekcji i odnawianiu w celu przygotowania do kolejnego lotu. Silnik posiada także przemysłowe oznaczenie '''RS-24''' lub '''RS-25'''.
 
W ramach programu Space Transportation System wyprodukowana została całkowita liczba czterdziestu sześciu silników wielokrotnego użytku, z których do każego lotu były używane trzy<ref name=forum>KSC booklet, Quote: "Since the first Space Shuttle launch on April 12, 1981, 42 different SSMEs have successfully demonstrated the performance, safety, and reliability of the world's only reusable liquid-fuel rocket engine.", [http://www.collectspace.com/ubb/Forum30/HTML/000409.html source]</ref>. NASA planuje zachowanie od 14 do 16 silników w wersji Block II w celu potencjalnego ich wykorzystania w przyszłych, jeszcze niezdefiniowanych projektach<ref name=aw20110329/>.
==Hydrogen fuel system==
[[File:Orbiter main propulsion system.svg|right|300px|thumb|Orbiter main propulsion system]]
[[Paliwo|Fuel]] entered the orbiter at the liquid hydrogen feed line disconnect valve, then flowed into the orbiter liquid hydrogen feed line manifold and branches out into three parallel paths to each engine. In each liquid hydrogen branch, a prevalve permitted liquid hydrogen to flow to the low-pressure fuel turbopump when the prevalve was open.
 
The low-pressure fuel turbopump (LPFTP) was an axial-flow pump driven by a two-stage turbine powered by gaseous hydrogen. It boosted the pressure of the liquid hydrogen from 30 to 276 psia (0.2 to 1.9 MPa) and supplies it to the high-pressure fuel turbopump (HPFTP). During engine operation, the pressure boost provided by the LPFTP permitted the HPFTP to operate at high speeds without cavitating. The LPFTP operated at approximately 16,185 [[rpm]]. The LPFTP was approximately {{convert|450|by|600|mm|in|abbr=on}}. It was connected to the vehicle propellant ducting and was supported in a fixed position by the orbiter structure 180 degrees from the LPOTP.
==Pre-burners and thrust control system==
[[File:SSME2.jpg|left|300px|thumb|Main Engine #1 being installed into an orbiter in one of the Orbiter Processing Facilities (OPF)]]
The oxidizer and fuel preburners were [[welded]] to the hot-[[gasGaz|Gas]] [[manifold (general engineering)|manifold]]. The fuel and oxidizer entered the preburners and were mixed so that efficient combustion can occur. The augmented [[ElectricŁuk arcelektryczny|spark]] igniter was a small combination chamber located in the center of the injector of each preburner. The two dual-redundant spark igniters, which were activated by the engine controller, were used during the engine start sequence to initiate combustion in each preburner. They were turned off after approximately three seconds because the combustion process was then self-sustaining. The preburners produce the fuel-rich hot gas that passed through the turbines to generate the power to operate the high-pressure turbopumps. The oxidizer preburner's outflow drives a turbine that was connected to the HPOTP and the oxidizer preburner pump. The fuel preburner's outflow drives a turbine that was connected to the HPFTP.
 
The speed of the HPOTP and HPFTP turbines depended on the position of the corresponding oxidizer and fuel preburner oxidizer valves. These valves were positioned by the engine controller, which used them to throttle the flow of liquid oxygen to the preburners and, thus, control engine thrust. The oxidizer and fuel preburner oxidizer valves increased or decreased the liquid oxygen flow, thus increasing or decreasing preburner chamber pressure, HPOTP and HPFTP turbine speed, and liquid oxygen and gaseous hydrogen flow into the main combustion chamber, which increased or decreased engine thrust, thus throttling the engine. The oxidizer and fuel preburner valves operated together to throttle the engine and maintain a constant 6-1 propellant mixture ratio.
 
==Cooling control system==
A [[coolantChłodziwo|Coolant]] control valve was mounted on the combustion chamber coolant bypass duct of each engine. The engine controller regulated the amount of gaseous hydrogen allowed to bypass the nozzle coolant loop, thus controlling its temperature. The chamber coolant valve was 100 % open before engine start. During engine operation, it was 100 % open for throttle settings of 100 to 109 % for maximum cooling. For throttle settings between 65 to 100 %, its position ranged from 66.4 to 100 % open for reduced cooling.
[[File:In-flight close up of Space Shuttle Atlantis during launch (STS-117).jpg|thumb|right|250px|[[SpaceAtlantis Shuttle Atlantis(wahadłowiec)|Space Shuttle ''Atlantis''']] main engines visibly in operation during the launch of [[STS-117|STS-117]].]]
 
==Combustion chamber and nozzle==
 
===Pre-October 2010===
At one point in the 2000s, the SSME was to see service in the post-Shuttle era as the main engines for the unmanned [[Ares V|Ares V]] cargo-launch vehicle and as a second-stage engine for the manned-rated [[Ares I|Ares I]] crew-launch vehicle. Although the use of the SSME seemed good on paper, as it would use current Shuttle technology after the Shuttle's retirement in 2010, it had several drawbacks:
 
* It would not be reusable, as they would be permanently attached to the discarded stage(s).
* It would have to undergo a flight-readiness firing (FRF) before installation &ndash; the so-called "Main Engine Test" that NASA conducted with each new Orbiter and prior to the [[STS-26|STS-26]] flight.
* It would be expensive, time-consuming, and weight-intensive to convert the ground-started SSME to an air-started version for the Ares I second stage.
 
 
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**[[STS-41B]], [[STS-41C]], [[STS-41D]], [[STS-51A]], [[STS-51C]], [[STS-51D]], [[STS-51G]], [[STS-51I]], [[STS-61C]], [[STS-55|STS-55]], [[STS-58|STS-58]], [[STS-62|STS-62]], [[STS-64|STS-64]], [[STS-63|STS-63]], [[STS-69|STS-69]], [[STS-76|STS-76]], [[STS-83|STS-83]]
 
== Zobacz też ==
* [[MPTA-098]] - przedmiot testów używany w czasie prac rozwojowym nad STS
* [[Rakieta dodatkowa na paliwo stałe]] - używana w czasie wynoszenia dla uzyskania dodatkowej mocy
* [[RD-0120]] - analogiczny silnik rakietowy stosowany w systemie startowym [[Energia (rakieta)|Energia]]
 
== Źródła ==
* {{Cytuj stronę | url = http://www.shuttlepresskit.com/scom/216.pdf | tytuł = NASA Shuttle Press Kit SSME Reference | format = PDF}}
* {{Cytuj stronę | url = http://www.boeing.com/defense-space/space/returntoflight/vehicleupgrades/ssme.html | tytuł = Space Shuttle Main Engine | publisher = [[Boeing]]}}
* {{Cytuj stronę | url = http://www.nasa.gov/centers/marshall/news/background/facts/ssme.html | tytuł = Space Shuttle Main Engine Enhancements | publisher = [[NASA|NASA]]}}
* {{Cytuj stronę | url = http://science.nasa.gov/headlines/y2002/06nov_ssme.htm | tytuł = The Roar of Innovation | publisher = [[NASA|NASA]]}}
* {{Cytuj stronę | url = http://users.ipfw.edu/modesitk/shuttleEngine.htm | tytuł = Space Shuttle Main Engine - incredible facts}}
* {{Cytuj stronę | url = http://www.enginehistory.org/SSME/SSME1.pdf#search='cutaway%20view%20space%20shuttle%20main%20engine | tytuł = Space Shuttle Main Engine The First Ten Years | format = PDF}}
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