Qere–Ketib: Różnice pomiędzy wersjami

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Qere–Ketib, a dokładnie: ''q<sup>e</sup>rê''''k<sup>e</sup>ṯîḇ'' – 2 aramejskie imiesłowy „czytany” – „napisany”<ref>{{Cytuj książkę|nazwisko = G. Deiana, A. Spreafico (opr. wer. pol. S. Bazyliński)|imię = |tytuł = Wprowadzenie do hebrajszczyzny biblijnej|rok = 2001|wydawca = Towarzystwo Biblijne w Polsce|miejsce = Warszawa|strony = 22|isbn = 83-85260-25-0}}</ref>, których używa się jako terminu technicznego w odniesieniu do Biblii herbrajskiej, na oznaczenie poprawek błędów w tekście spółgłoskowym (rzeczywistych lub domniemanych). W BHS (jak w większości rękopisów) błędne słowo jest oznaczone punktem, a na marginesie podano prawidłowe (albo najczęściej jedynie inną formę) wraz z literą ק (od ''qere''). Natomiast samogłoski z „błędnego” słowa mają być czytane ze słowem „poprawionym”. Istniały jednak także inne sposoby oznaczeń (np. pionowa kreska, podobna do końcowego ''nun'')<ref>E. Tov, ''Textual Criticism of the Hebrew Bible'', Minneapolis 2001<sup>2</sup>, s. 59.</ref>.
 
Jest to bardzo częste spośród oznaczeń masory tekstu masoreckiego (występuje (w zależności od konkretnego manuskryptu) od 848 do 1566 razy)<ref>E. Tov, ''Textual Criticism of the Hebrew Bible'', Minneapolis 2001<sup>2</sup>, s. 58.</ref>.
<ref>Ernst Würthwein, ''The Text of the Old Testament''. An Introduction to the Biblia Hebraica, Grand Rapids 1995<sup>2</sup>, s. 23.</ref>
 
qere perpetuum (stałe qere) - słowo nie jest specjalnie oznaczone, ale samogłoski dodane należą do słowa, które należałoby przeczytać zamiast tego zapisanego danymi spógłoskami (np. zamiana Tetragrammu na imiona Adonaj albo Elohim)<ref>E. Tov, ''Textual Criticism of the Hebrew Bible'', Minneapolis 2001<sup>2</sup>, s. 59.</ref>.
 
Yeivin divides the Ketiv/Qere into six categories. He dates three of these categories as proto-Masoretic. We have already examined one of these three, Qere we-laʾ ketiv and Ketiv we-laʾ Qere which he groups together as “category 5.” The other two are the sixteen Ketiv/Qere euphemisms (his category 1) and the perpetual Qere of the divine name (part of his category 6). He makes the point that these are proto-Masoretic because they are mentioned in the Talmud. On the other hand, the other categories are based on elements of the text which were added later. Weil also notes the antiquity of some of the information recorded in Ketiv/Qere. From all of the previous categories, one can see that the proto-Masoretic text contained a variety of irregularities. Some were orthographic, and some were matters of oral tradition. The Masoretes faithfully preserved these anomalies, and their tradition continues into modern times.
The Qere/Ketiv differs from these in that it deals with cases where the reading tradition records a different word or, more often, a different form of a word from the written text. The Qere indicates how the word should be read. In BHS the Ketiv is pointed with the vowels belonging to the Qere while the Qere (in the margin written over ק̇) remains unpointed. Other printed editions follow a different procedure. Other manuscripts also vary in the ways Qere/Ketiv is marked.
 
== Propozycje interpretacyjne ==
Scholars are divided with regard to the Ketiv/Qere notation system. Morrow says that the Ketiv/Qere variations represent alternative traditions accepted in different circles, specifically, Ketiv represents the written tradition of the scribes; Qere the oral tradition of readers and synagogue schools. The Masoretes, who knew both traditions, devised this system to safeguard readings where the Qere varied so much from the Ketiv that it might affect the consonantal text, which was the Masoretes’ primary concern. He bases his argument that the Masoretes were the creators of the Ketiv/Qere notation system on two points:
 
Scholars are divided with regard to the Ketiv/Qere notation system. Morrow says that the Ketiv/Qere variations represent alternative traditions accepted in different circles, specifically, Ketiv represents the written tradition of the scribes; Qere the oral tradition of readers and synagogue schools. The Masoretes, who knew both traditions, devised this system to safeguard readings where the Qere varied so much from the Ketiv that it might affect the consonantal text, which was the Masoretes’ primary concern. He bases his argument that the Masoretes were the creators of the Ketiv/Qere notation system on two points:
 
1) there is no manuscript evidence for Ketiv/Qere notes before the Masoretes
 
Against these theories, Morrow argues the strong likelihood that the Ketiv/Qere notes are the work of the Masoretes based on manuscript evidence and the fact that it was the primary goal of the Masoretes to preserve the consonantal text passed down to them. But, while the notation system for Ketiv/Qere was probably developed by the Masoretes, some of the categories of Ketiv/Qere it notes likely predate the notation system and the Masoretes.
 
Yeivin divides the Ketiv/Qere into six categories. He dates three of these categories as proto-Masoretic. We have already examined one of these three, Qere we-laʾ ketiv and Ketiv we-laʾ Qere which he groups together as “category 5.” The other two are the sixteen Ketiv/Qere euphemisms (his category 1) and the perpetual Qere of the divine name (part of his category 6). He makes the point that these are proto-Masoretic because they are mentioned in the Talmud. On the other hand, the other categories are based on elements of the text which were added later. Weil also notes the antiquity of some of the information recorded in Ketiv/Qere. From all of the previous categories, one can see that the proto-Masoretic text contained a variety of irregularities. Some were orthographic, and some were matters of oral tradition. The Masoretes faithfully preserved these anomalies, and their tradition continues into modern times.
 
== Propozycje interpretacyjne ==
 
Kelley, P. H., Mynatt, D. S., & Crawford, T. G. (1998). The Masorah of Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia: Introduction and annotated glossary (42). Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company.